Ashley Mae Conard
Ph.D. Candidate Computational Biology, Computer Science track
Center for Computational and Molecular Biology
Brown University
Providence, RI 02906, USA
Phone: +1 765-891-0288
E-mail: ashley_conard@brown.edu
Research interests
Bayesian inference modeling, temporal dynamics, interpretable deep learning, multi-omics data integration, gene regulatory
network reconstruction, visualization, reproducibility, high-performance computing, ga
me theory, protein structure prediction.
Education
2021 (expected) Center for Computational and Molecular Biology, Brown University, RI, USA.
Ph.D. Computational Biology, Computer Science track
Thesis: It’s about time: developing interpretable models to uncover regulatory mechanisms from tem-
poral and multi-omic data
Advisors: Dr. Erica Larschan, Dr. Charles Lawrence, Dr. Lorin Crawford
2019
Computer Science, Brown University RI, USA.
M.S. in Computer Science
Thesis: Identification of subclonal drivers and copy-number variants from bulk and single-cell DNA
sequencing of tumors (https://cs.brown.edu/research/pubs/theses/masters/2019/conard.ashley.pdf)
Advisor: Dr. Benjamin Raphael
2014
DePauw University, IN, USA.
B.A. in Computer Science, Biochemistry specialization, minor French, magna cum laude
Honors and Awards
International and National
2014–present National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship Program (NSF GRFP)
2014–2015
Fulbright Research Scholar, Machine Learning and Game Theory, Belgium
2015
Belgian American Education Foundation Fellow, Machine Learning and Game Theory, Belgium
2014
Science Mathematics and Research for Transformation (SMART). Declined due to NSF GRFP.
2010–2014
Grace Hopper International Celebration of Women in Computing: Poster Award 2013, (scholarships:
NSF 2010, Xerox 2012, Intel 2013)
2011
Ohio Celebration of Women in Computing (OCWiC), scholarship to attend
National Society of Collegiate Scholars (NSCS)
2010
Science National Honor Society
2009
Indiana High School Athletic Association Role Model: gave speeches to promote drug-free living
1
DePauw University
2014 Old Gold Award: academic excellence and high achievement
2012
Internships in Francophone Europe: fellowship to study in Belgium and conduct research
2010–2014
Dean’s List (every semester)
Information Technology Associates Program (ITAP) - selective honors program
Science Research Fellows (SRF) - selective honors program
Honors Societies: Mortar Board, Chi Alpha Sigma, Phi Eta Sigma, Order of Omega, National
Society for Collegiate Scholars, Alpha Lambda Delta
Skills and Experience
Programming Bash, C++, C, CSS, HTML, Julia, Java, MATLAB, pMatlab, Markdown, Python, R, RShiny, SQL
Languages
Dev. Tools/
Environments
Arduino IDE, BlueJ, Eclipse, Jupyter Notebook, Oracle’s JDK, Putty, Tensorflow, Terminal, Visual
Studio Code, Xcode
Big Data Tools
Apache Acculumo, Apache Hadoop, MPI, OpenMP, Slurm
Programs/
Platforms
ArcGIS, Arduino, Audacity, Business Objects, Cytoscape, Chimera, Discoverant, Dreamweaver, Final
Cut Pro, GIMP, Illustrator, Infopath, MakerBot, Raspberry Pie, Raven, ROSETTA
Foreign
Languages
French (fluent), Spanish (fluent)
Professional Research and Computing Experience
2018–present Center for Computational and Molecular Biology (CCMB), Brown University,
Providence, RI, USA.
Ph.D. Candidate. Developing Bayesian models to infer biological mechanisms from both multi-omic
time series data and RNA secondary structure.
Fall 2018
Department of Health, RI, USA.
Machine Learning Scholar. Designed predictive model to address a need in Rhode Island’s hospital
systems. The hope is to form state legislation based on findings.
2015–2017
Department of Computer Science, Brown University, Providence, RI, USA.
Graduate Student. Designed deep learning model to improve DNA single-cell sequencing data for
large region mutation (copy-number) inference. Developed pipeline to identify subclonal driver muta-
tions in bulk sequencing cancer tumor samples across nine cancer types.
2014–2015
Department of Computer Science, Universit
´
e Libre de Bruxelles, Belgium.
Game Theory Researcher. Created a method to uncover binding specificities in SH3 protein domain
using machine learning, cooperative game theory, and structural bioinformatics.
Summer 2013,
Massachusetts Institute of Technology Lincoln Laboratory, MA, USA.
2014
Bioinformatics Researcher. Developed a fast protein analysis algorithm using Dynamic Distributed
Dimensional Data Model (by Dr. Jeremy Kepner), merging sparse algebra, associative and distributed
arrays, and triplestore/NoSQL databases (Accumulo).
Summer 2013
Department of Chemistry, DePauw University, IN, USA.
Chemical Inventory Database Creator Senior Project. Designed, built, and deployed database (Parse
Platform) and front end (HTML, CSS). 2000 users for many departments
[link].
2
January 2013 Center for Structural Biology, Vanderbilt University, TN, USA.
Visiting Scholar. Assisted in development of new structure prediction algorithms in RosettaLigand
program (simulations and design of macromolecules) and proposed new machine learning techniques
in Biochemical Library (BCL) drug discovery project.
2011–2012
Technology Associate of Alumni Office, DePauw University, IN, USA.
Student Worker. Provided information technology solutions for faculty and staff. Built video presenta-
tions for award lectures and conducted interviews for alumni networking.
Summer 2012
Eli Lilly and Company (Elanco), IN, USA.
Quality Control Researcher. Designed, tested and implemented two software programs. One for devi-
ation documentation and the other instrument control. The former went GLOBAL for Elanco plants
in Nov. 2012, the latter runs automatically daily. Learned how to use Gas Chromatography, Atomic
Absorption Spectroscopy, and High Performance Liquid Chromatography.
Spring 2012
Department of Computer Science, Universit
´
e Libre de Bruxelles, Belgium.
Visiting Scholar. Analyzed the role of core amino acids in a FYN SH3 protein domain using structural
bioinformatics and game theory techniques.
2010–2011
Information Technology Help Desk, Information Technology Associates
Program, DePauw University, IN, USA.
Technology Associate. Project manager for team of ten that implemented technology solutions for
students and faculty, including revamping websites and software troubleshooting.
Summer 2011
JDS Uniphase, TX, NY, USA.
Technology Sales and Marketing Associate. Researched, tested, taught, and marketed communication
software, services, and solutions for Verizon, AT&T.
Summer 2011
Department of Biology, Science Research Fellowship Program, DePauw University, IN, USA.
Behavioral Ecology Researcher. Developed procedures to test and analyze different advertisement and
aggressive calling patterns of Acris blanchardi. Tested parachuting behavior of Hyla chrysosclis, Acris
blanchardi, and Anaxyrus fowleri.
Fall 2010
Department of Chemistry, Science Research Fellowship Program, DePauw University, IN, USA.
Inorganic Chemistry Researcher. Synthesized ionogel and determined chemical and physical proper-
ties to use as a catalyst for biosensing, optics, and electrolytes.
Summer 2008
Eli Lilly and Company, IN, USA.
Inorganic Chemistry Researcher. Assessed hydrolytic stability of cyclopropanecarboxylic acid esters
as potential prodrugs. Synthesized an acyclovir prodrug and worked with a ghrelin O-acyltransferase
inhibitor to evaluate use as a potential therapeutic target to treat obesity and diabetes.
Publications
Co-first author:
!
, corresponding author: .
2020
A. Conard
, N. Goodman, Y. Hu, N. Perrimon, R. Singh, C. Lawrence
, E. Larschan
. TIMEOR: a
web-based tool to uncover regulatory mechanisms from temporal and multi-omics data.
NAR. (In submission).
A. Conard
!
, R. Singh
, L. Crawford
. A Bayesian Inference Approach to Predicting and Interpreting
Cancer Patient Gene Regulatory Networks from Multiple Data Types. ISMB. (In preparation).
A. Conard
!
, Alan DenAdel
!
, C. Lawrence
. Lessons in Bayesian Inference in Genomics and Molec-
ular Biology. (In preparation).
3
A. Conard, I. Nathoo, M. Tsarli, C. Lawrence, E. Larschan
. XvsY: A Computational Approach
to Distinguish the Temporal Sex-Specific Roles of Vital Co-Factors on Brain Development in
Drosophila. (In preparation).
M. Ray
!
, A. Conard
!
, E. Larschan
. The CLAMP transcription factor regulates sex-specific splicing
in the Drosophila early embryo. Nature Communications. (In submission).
M. Tsarli
!
, A. Conard, E. Larschan
. The Drosophila CLAMP protein regulates neurogenesis in the
optic lobe. Genetics. (Under review).
N. D’Silva
!
, K. McCullar
!
, A. Conard, T. Blackwater, R. Azanchi1, U. Heberlein, E. Larschan,
K. Kaun
. Neuromolecular and behavioral adaptation associated with alcohol deprivation.
Molecular Pharmacology. (In preparation).
B. Almedia, A. Conard, M. Ray, E. Larschan
. A new link between dosage compensation and en-
hancers. (In preparation).
2016
B. Cuypers, A. Jacobsen, B. Siranosian, K. Schwahn, A. Conard, N. Aben, M. Hassan, N. Fatima,
S. Hermans, M. Woghiren, P. Meysman, F. Rahman, A. Jigisha. Highlights from the ISCB Student
Council Symposia in 2016. F1000Research. 2016, 5(ISCB Comm J):2852
2015
A. Conard, S. Dodson, J. Kepner
, D. Ricke
. Using a Big Data Database to Identify Pathogens in
Protein Data Space, arXiv:1501.05546.
Selected Presentations
Invited Talks
November 2020 TIMEOR: a web-based tool to uncover temporal regulatory mechanisms from multi-omics data
Biological Data Science Conference, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Virtual.
March 2020
TIMEOR: web-based tool to uncover regulatory mechanisms from temporal & multi-omics data
Adelman-Bender-Cole-Kuroda-Larschan Joint Lab Meeting, Harvard University, MA, USA.
January 2020
Trajectory Inference and Mechanism Exploration with Omics Data in R. A computational
method to uncover regulatory mechanisms of transcription factors during development
Perrimon Lab Group Meeting (collaborator), Harvard University, MA, USA.
October 2019
Trajectory Inference and Mechanism Exploration with Omics Data in R. Its about time!
Epigenomics Club, Brown University, RI, USA.
August 2019
Trajectory Inference and Mechanism Exploration with Omics Data in R - A method to uncover
regulatory mechanisms over time
Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, MA, USA.
August 2019
Time course model of alcoholism in neural development of Drosophila melanogaster
Kaun Lab Group Meeting, Brown University, RI, USA.
June 2019
Trajectory Inference and Mechanism Exploration with Omics Data in R - A method to analyze
how transcription factors influence development
Boston Area Drosophila Meeting, Brown University, RI, USA. Flash talk.
June 2019
Trajectory Inference and Mechanism Exploration with Omics Data in R - A method to analyze
how transcription factors influence development
Adelman-Bender-Cole-Kuroda-Larschan Joint Lab Meeting, Harvard University, MA, USA.
March 2019
KO or OK? A pipeline to analyze how the CLAMP transcription factors influences development
Epigenomics Club, Brown University, RI, USA.
October 2019
Student of Vision Abie Award
Grace Hopper Celebration, FL, USA. Moderator and panelist.
4
October 2018 Student of Vision Abie Award
Grace Hopper Celebration, TX, USA. Moderator and panelist.
October 2016
Subclonal Driver Events Across 9 Cancer Types
IB
2
Student Day, Universit
´
e Libre de Bruxelles, Belgium.
August 2015
Applying for National and International Awards
DePauw University, IN, USA.
December 2014
Determining winning SH3 coalition using Game Theory
Benelux Bioinformatics Conference, Belgium.
June 2015
Determining the winning SH3 Coalition with Game Theory
Regional Student Group, Belgium.
December 2014
Determining winning SH3 coalition using Game Theory
Benelux Bioinformatics Conference, Belgium.
May 2014
Chemical Inventory Database System and School-Wide Integration
DePauw University, IN, USA. Presentation and poster [link].
January 2014
Essential Residues within Fyn SH3 Protein Domain using Game Theory
Indiana Women in Computing Conference (InWIC), IN, USA. Won 1st prize [link].
January 2014
No Fomo - User Experience Challenge
Microsoft International Imagine Cup, DePauw University, IN. Honorable mention [link].
May 2012
Coalitional Game Theory and Feature Selection to Describe the Dependencies Between Amino
Acids Within the SH3 FYN Protein Domain
Chicago Women in Computing (ChiWIC), IL, USA.
May 2012
Synergistic & Antagonistic Dependencies Analyzed via Game Theory in FYN Protein Domain
(Presented in French and English). Thesis in French. Universit
´
e Libre de Bruxelles, Belgium.
June 2011
Censorship between China and Google
Ohio Celebration of Women in Computing (OCWiC), OH, USA.
Posters
April 2020 TIMEOR: web-based tool to uncover regulatory mechanisms from temporal & multi-omics data
The Allied Genetics Conference (TAGC), Virtual.
November 2019
TIMEOR: method to uncover regulatory mechanisms from temporal and multi-omics data
Fulbright Association Conference, DC, USA.
May 2019
Method characterize how transcription factors influence development with RNA & ChIP-seq
RECOMB, DC, USA.
March 2019
Method characterize how transcription factors influence development with RNA & ChIP-seq
Annual Drosophila Meeting, TX, USA.
November 2017
Determining the winning SH3 coalition: how cooperative game theory reveals the importance of
domain residues in peptide binding
Fulbright Association Conference, DC, USA.
October 2016
Coalitional Game Theory and Feature Selection to Describe the Dependencies Between Amino
Acids Within the SH3 FYN Protein Domain
Grace Hopper Celebration, TX, USA.
July 2015
Determining the winning SH3 Coalition with Game Theory
International Society for Molecular Biology (ISMB), Ireland. Won RSCB PDB Prize [link].
5
January 2015 Using a Big Data Database to Identify Pathogens in Protein Data Space
New England Database Day, MA, USA.
January 2014
Creation and Implementation of D4M Algorithm for Protein Analysis
Indiana Women in Computing Conference (InWIC), IN, USA. Won 1st prize [link].
October 2013
Creation and Implementation of D4M Algorithm for Protein Analysis
OurCS Conference, Carnegie Mellon, PA, USA. Won 1st prize [link].
September 2011
Male-Male Cricket Frog Aggressive Behavior
DePauw University Summer Research, Science Research Fellow, IN, USA. [link].
September 2011
Parachuting Arboreal Frogs
DePauw University Summer Research, Science Research Fellow, IN, USA. [link].
Teaching Experience
Spring 2019 Applied Math 0650, Statistical Inference II: undergraduate course at Brown University.
Lecture on causation and estimation calculations.
Summer 2013,
2014
Arduino Programming: student workshop for Google’s Computer Science Summer Institute. Cre-
ated, recruited, implemented, and led Arduino workshop for more than 40 students at Google’s Com-
puter Science Summer Institute
[link].
2012–2014
Biology 325, Bioinformatics: undergraduate course at DePauw University.
Devised laboratory sessions, homework, helped grade, and tutored students.
2011–2014
Tutor: Created personalized lesson plans to tutor students (10 overall) in classes in the departments of
Chemistry, Computer Science, Biology, French and Spanish, at DePauw University.
Student Mentorship
2020 Dominique Pablito, graduate student, ‘Uncovering temporal sex-specific differences across multiple
species’
Isaac Nathoo, undergraduate student, ‘Regulation of alternate sex specific splicing by DNA bind-
ing protein CLAMP during early embryonic development determines transcriptome heterogeneity be-
tween sexes’
2019
Nathaniel Goodman, undergraduate student, ‘TIMEOR: a web-based tool to uncover regulatory mech-
anisms from temporal and multi-omics data’
Academic Service and Memberships
Memberships International Society for Computational Biology (ISCB), 2015–2016, 2020–present
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2020–present
Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics (SIAM), 2020–present
Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2010, 2020–present
American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (ASBMB), 2018–present
American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), 2017–present
National Science Policy Network (NSPN), 2020–present
Conference
Grace Hopper Celebration, 2015–2020
Fulbright Conference, 2019, 2020
International Society of Computational Biology (ISCB) Student Council Symposium, 2016–2018
Indiana Women in Computing Conference (InWIC), 2014
6
Internal service CCMB Presenter Series founder, CCMB, Brown University, 2019–present
Graduate student recruiting, CCMB, Brown University, 2018–present
Software
2019 TIMEOR [link]
TIMEOR - Trajectory Inference and Mechanism Exploration using Omics data in R - is a command
line and front-end R Shiny tool to identify altered regulatory mechanisms from temporal and multi-
omics data.
Implementation details: R, R Shiny, Bash, Python
Spring 2014
Chemical Inventory Database [description link], (property of DePauw [login link])
Web-based inventory management system used in many academic departments, mainly chemistry.
Users log in and use a phone to scan barcodes for automatic item entry. The application uses the Parse
Platform as a relational database to house inventory for DePauw University. This system has been
updated by the maintainer Dr. Dave Roberts.
Implementation details: HTML, CSS, Parse Platform
2013, 2014
Arduino-CSSI [link]
Set of Arduino workshop modules and Fritzing diagrams to teach students how to program as part of
the Google Computer Science Summer Institute (CSSI).
Implementation details: C
Summer 2012
Instrument Control (property of Elanco)
Online internal system to monitor product batch data. Batch data is extracted from Eli Lilly’s Data
Mart and Data Warehouse databases and then visualized for the researcher (such as potency, and
solubility fluctuations). This system now runs automatically daily, enables employees to easily inspect
and verify internal processes, saving money and time.
Implementation details: SQL, Discoverant, and Business objects
Summer 2012
Deviation Identification and Reporting (property of Elanco)
Online internal system for deviation reporting with automatic alerts, excel exports, and editing options
to identify malfunctioning manufacturing products and machines across the plant. These reports were
previously on paper. This system was adopted globally for all Elanco plants in November, 2012.
Implementation details: SharePoint, Discoverant, and Business objects
January 2011
INcitizenconnect [link]
Website to keep updated with local legislation in the 2011 Indiana General Assembly.
Implementation details: Wordpress
Leadership and Activities
Professional Organizations and Positions
2018–present Fulbright Board of Directors. Young professional board member [link], [profile]. Fulbright Assoc.
2015–present
Student of Vision Abie Award Judge and Co-creator. Award honors students committed to creating
a future where the people who envision and build technology mirror the people and societies for which
they build. Winners receive a $7000 prize and the chance to go to Grace Hopper
[link].
2004–present
D-Day Ambassador to France. Selected to represent U.S. for D-Day Commemoration, and to return
every 4 years until the 100th anniversary of World War II. International School of Indiana.
2018
Science Writer. Wrote two articles on scientific advances targeted at advanced high school stu-
dents. Infobase Learning, Science News Today.
7
2017–2018 Princeton Citizen Scientists member. Helped grow a group of scientists interested in policy, mobi-
lizing at Princeton and beyond to advocate for science. Princeton University.
2016–2018
International Society of Computational Biology (ISCB) Student Symposium Finance Chair. Led
a team to build new strategies bringing four new and important sponsors. We gave >20 scholarships
to support international and domestic travel to the conference. ISCB
2015–2017
AnitaB.org Board of Trustees. Student board member in program and strategies committees. Fo-
cused efforts to build the Student of Vision Awards (an Abie Award), BRAID, Top Companies, and
ABI.local. AnitaB.org
February 2015
US-EU-NATO Affairs Delegate. Fulbright grantee to engage in EU Seminar in international diplo-
macy. Fulbright and EU Commission.
2008–2011
Venture Crew President (2010). Vice President in 2009. Venture Crew 1121. Boy Scouts of America.
DePauw University Organizations and Positions
2014 Mortar Board Vice President. Helped establish structure for new society focused on achievement in
scholarship, leadership, and service. DePauw University.
2011–2014
DePauw Farm Co-founder. Founded and built business plan for 2-acre farm, where 25% of produce
is given to local Greencastle Indiana food pantries. DePauw University
[link].
2011–2013
Robotics Club Co-founder & Vice President. Students are provided with free tools to make whatever
they wish. We visit local schools for outreach days. DePauw University.
January 2011
DePauw Environmental Policy Program. Testified scientific bills, Indiana Statehouse, created web-
site
[link]. DePauw University.
2010–2014
University Athletics. Soccer (2010-2012) and Track (2013-2014). DePauw University.
Service and Outreach
November 2019 Lifetime Achievement Award to President of Croatia Kolinda Grabar-Kitarovi
´
c, NPR’s Melissa
Block, and Architect James S. Polshek. Presented award with Fulbright Board of Directors.
Fulbright Association
[link].
November 2019
Fulbright Talks host (similar to TEDx). Fulbright Association [link].
January 2019
Fulbright Prize to German Chancellor Angela Merkel. Presented award with Fulbright Board of
Directors. Fulbright Association
[link] [photo].
October 2019
Advocating the “Value and Impact of the Fulbright Program” with U.S. Senator Chris Van
Hollen (D-MD). Fulbright Association
[link].
June 2018
Raspberry Pi robotics outreach. Taught 20 students in Roanoke VA. They got to keep their Rasp-
berry Pi. Virginia Tech Philosophy and Physical Computing Workshop
[link].
October 2016
Presented Top Companies award (audience of 15,000). AnitaB.org [link].
October 2013
IEEE High Performance Computing Conference (HPEC). Served as usher and attended. IEEE.
2012–2014
STARS Computing Corps. Student-led regional outreach group to broaden participation in comput-
ing. DePauw University.
November 2012
National Chemistry Week High School Competition. Organized, and executed a video and essay
competition for high school students to come to the Children’s Museum of Indianapolis for a day of
chemistry, fun and to view undergraduate institutions. American Chemical Society.
8
Summer 2010 Service Trip to Costa Rica. Created a septic tank for ‘Estaci
´
on de las tortugas’, worked on pineapple
plantation, and helped record nesting behavior of Leather Back and Green Sea Turtles hatchlings. Ser-
vicio en Las Am
´
ericas Program, DePauw University.
Media
July 2019 Center for Computational and Molecular Biology Ph.D. Program - Brown University [link].
July 2019
Remembering D-Day - Fulbright Association [link].
January 2019
Alumni Profile: Ashley Mae Conard - Fulbright Association [link].
May 2017
An Insider’s Look at Student Board Membership - AnitaB.org [link].
October 2016
Grace Hopper Interview as AnitaB.org Board Member - The Cube [link].
October 2016
Women Who Reign: Ashley Conard - ReigningIt [link].
November 2015
Meet Ashley Conard, AnitaB.org’s New Student Board Member - AnitaB.org [link].
October 2015
Putting women and computer science in every field - SiliconANGLE [link].
October 2015
Grace Hopper Interview as AnitaB.org Board Member - The Cube [link].
October 2015
Ashley Conard ’14 Will Conduct Computational Biology Research in Belgium with Fulbright
Award - DePauw University
[link].
October 2015
All of the Above - DePauw University [link].
References
Academic External
Professor Erica Larschan (Ph.D. advisor) Professor Fran Berman
Richard and Edna Salomon Associate Prof. of Biology Former chair of Board of Trustees AnitaB.org
Department of Molecular Biology, Cellular Biology
and Biochemistry
Edward P. Hamilton Distinguished Professor of
Computer Science
Center for Computational Molecular Biology (CCMB) Department of Computer Science
Brown University Rensselaer P
olytechnic Institute (RPI)
185 Meeting Street, Room 368 110 8th Street, 218 Amos Eaton Hall
Providence, RI 02912 Troy NY 12180 US
tel: 401-863-1070 email: bermaf@rpi.edu
email: erica
larschan@brown.edu
Professor Charles Lawrence (Ph.D. advisor) Telle Whitney
Professor of Applied Mathematics Former CEO and President of AnitaB.org
Department of Applied Math tel:408-505-1083
Center for Computational Molecular Biology (CCMB) email:tellew@gmail.com
Brown University
182 George Street, Room 204
Providence, RI 02912
tel: 401-863-1479
Skype ID: chip
lawrence
email: chip
lawrence@brown.edu
9
Professor Lorin Crawford (Ph.D. advisor) DeDe Long
RGSS Assistant Professor of Biostatistics Board of Directors President Fulbright Association
Center for Statistical Sciences Former Director of Office of International Exchange
Center for Computational Molecular Biology (CCMB) University of Arkansas
Brown University School of Public Health email:dslong@uark.edu
121 S Main St, Box G-S121-7
Providence, RI 02912
tel: 401-863-9634
email: lorin
crawford@brown.edu
Last updated on December 9, 2020
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